·       Salmonella exists as numerous types, (~2000), these have  different names. Typhoid fever and some cases of food poisoning in humans is causes by a Salmonella bacteria called S. typhimurium.


·       S. hindmarsh is the most common causing death in ewes.


·       Abortion and death in ewes is caused by S. brandenburg in New Zealand.


·       S. Abortus-ovis causes abortion in the U.K., this bacteria is not found.



·       Salmonella’s natural habitat is the intestine of most warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals. It survives in these carrier animals and is excreted onto pasture by animals that may show no clinical signs whatsoever.


·       Salmonella under the most favourable conditions can survive for 9 months, especially in moist soil, water faecal material and animal feeds.


·       Normal survival is much less than this. A few days in dry exposed conditions to a few weeks in moist sheltered conditions




·       Animals that normally ingest these bacteria are not effected, however numerous factors can result in disease.


·       Normally the indigenous bacteria that live in the intestine prevent Salmonella from attaching to the intestinal wall and hence invaded the new animal.


·       Stress factors, such as, yarding,  water and feed deprivation, antibiotic therapy and overcrowding can disrupt the normal intestinal flora predisposing an animal to bacteria colonisation.


·       Why there is such a high prevalence in the autumn and early winter and not at other times of the year still remains a mystery.


Human Infection (Zoonosis)


·       Salmonella of any type is capable of being spread to humans and causing disease, pathogens that can infect humans directly from animals are called Zoonoses.


·       Handle all material very carefully and wash thoroughly afterwards




·       All hoggets should be vaccinated twice 3-4 weeks apart. Insuring final dose is 3 weeks prior to risk periods.


·       SALVEXIN® A vaccine consisting of in active strains of Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella hindmarsh and Salmonella bovis-morbificans.


·       The vaccine does not contain S. brandenburg


·       Ideally ewes should be boostered annually on high risk properties.


·       Vaccinating the hoggets only will mean a greater response to the vaccine if it is used only in the face of an outbreak in older stock.


·       Extreme care should be under taken during autumn not to place stress on stock. This includes feed, water, movement and over crowding.